CONSUMIDOR | Federação explica por que queda de preço custa a chegar à bomba

Foto: Alex Schneider/ GBC

Agência Brasil | A Federação Nacional do Comércio de Combustíveis e de Lubrificantes (Fecombustíveis) divulgou hoje (7) nota oficial na qual procura explicar por que a queda de preços da gasolina e do diesel nas refinarias demora a ser repassada ao consumidor final. “Apesar de a Petrobras divulgar quedas de preços da gasolina e diesel nas últimas semanas, o repasse deste menor custo não acontece na mesma velocidade e proporção nas bombas”, diz a nota da Fecombustíveis.

No período de 25 de setembro a 7 de novembro, o preço da gasolina nas refinarias Petrobras chegou a cair 23,8%, mas a queda não foi sentida pelos consumidor. Segundo a federação, isso se deve ao funcionamento da cadeia de combustíveis, que é formada por refinarias, distribuidoras e postos.

“Pelas regras atuais, os postos não podem comprar gasolina e diesel direto das refinarias. Compram apenas das companhias distribuidoras, que são responsáveis por toda a logística do abastecimento nacional em todos os estados brasileiros.” A nota da Fecombustíveis destaca que as refinarias comercializam gasolina A (sem etanol anidro) e diesel A (sem biodiesel) para as distribuidoras e acrescenta: “nas bases da distribuição são adicionados 27% de etanol anidro e 10% de biodiesel, que, após a mistura, tornam-se gasolina C e diesel C, que são vendidos e distribuídos para os postos por meio rodoviário via caminhões-tanques”.

“Como os postos de combustíveis não podem comprar das refinarias, eles só conseguem diminuir os preços quando as companhias distribuidoras eventualmente os reduzam”, diz a Fecombustíveis. “Os preços da revenda estão ligados diretamente aos preços das companhias distribuidoras, ou seja, se elas reduzirem, os postos, consequentemente, também repassam a redução.”

De acordo com a Fecombustíveis, os valores praticados pela Petrobras são aproximadamente um terço do preço pago pelo consumidor nos postos, mas é preciso levar em conta também os custos dos biocombustíveis, impostos, fretes e as margens de lucro.

A nota da entidade ressalta que, se o preço da gasolina nas refinarias caiu 23,8% de 25 de setembro a 7 de novembro, o custo do etanol anidro subiu 5,7% de 21 de setembro a 1º de novembro. “No caso do diesel, a redução média foi de R$ 0, 24 por litro nas refinarias Petrobras. Já o biodiesel, em virtude do último leilão promovido pela Agência Nacional de Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis (ANP), aumentou entre R$ 0,03 e R$ 0,04 o litro.”

A Fecombustíveis admite que, até o momento, a redução de preços do diesel não foi repassada integralmente pelas distribuidoras. A entidade ressalta ainda o impacto decorrente do preço de pauta para cobrança do Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e serviços (ICMS).

Na conclusão do texto, a Fecombustíveis lembra que os preços dos combustíveis são livres em todos os segmentos e que não não interfere no mercado. Cabe a cada posto revendedor decidir se repassa a queda de preços nas refinarias ao consumidor final, “de acordo com suas estruturas de custo”.

Agência GBC

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